Drainage

Pheasants Nest Detention Pond
Brookings, SD

The Pheasants Nest Detention Pond Project was identified in the City of Brookings Drainage Masterplan and ranked as a top three priority drainage project by the City Council because of the potential benefit to downstream residents. The purpose of the detention pond is to regulate peak stormwater flows and reduce sediment loads entering the existing downstream open channel drainage system. The plan included regrading the entire 10.5 acre lot which created room for a future dog park, construction of a two-phase storm water detention and sedimentation pond, and an outlet flow control structure, installing native grasses, trees, and wetland flora, and pedestrian walkways. Two rain gardens were also included to handle direct runoff from the adjacent street before entering the pond. Since there was an existing wetland onsite, a 404 wetland permit application was submitted to South Dakota’s Regulatory Office and the pond construction work was authorized under an Army Corps general permit. 

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Linden Ravine Drainage Improvements
Vermillion, SD

Linden Ravine in Vermillion, otherwise known to locals as Skunk Hollow, conveys a significant amount of storm water from the upstream drainage basin. Over time, the drainage way became overgrown with trees and shrubs and started to experience significant erosion to the point that the eroded inslopes started to get close to structures. The City asked Banner to complete a hydraulic analysis and to design the ravine to convey water by both underground storm pipe and overland through a drainage swale. The underground pipe was designed to carry the 5-year storm event and the swale was designed to handle the 100-year event. Banner specified HDPE storm pipe and PVC inlets to reduce the amount of vehicle passes needed to haul concrete structures into the working limits. The HDPE storm pipe and PVC inlets could be carried in by the laborers. The drainage way displays a significant elevation difference from upstream to downstream so multiple forms of erosion control were used to help establish the vegetation both in the drainage swale bottom and the inslopes. At times the construction limits were so narrow that the contractor used a buggy to haul bedding material from the street to the pipe installation location.

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FEMA Map Revision: Unnamed Tributary to Skunk Creek
Hartford, SD

FEMA approved the Letter of Map Revision (LOMR) prepared by Banner for the City of Hartford, SD for a 3.3 mile length of unnamed Tributary to Skunk Creek through the City and a small surrounding area in Minnehaha County. Hartford is developing at a rapid pace and in order to protect the public near this flooding source, the City elected to hire Banner to perform a detailed study. The City’s floodplain mapping was previously a Zone A approximate Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) with no official Base Flood Elevations (BFEs) identified. The LOMR revised the 100 year (1%-annual chance) boundary, added BFEs (Zone AE), and a 500-year (0.2%-annual-chance) boundary. This project was unique because of the accelerated timeline. The first FEMA map was submitted 4 months after the design contract was awarded.  During this time, survey crews collected topographic data for the area and engineering staff conducted hydrologic and hydraulic models that were used to create the maps for the FEMA submittal.  After the additional data requests were received from FEMA during their review process, a preliminary LOMR determination approval was made within 6 months. When the required 90 day appeal period concluded, the map became effective. This was a fast-track project especially considering the length of stream revised.

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Rand Road Drainage Channel - Phase II
Rapid City, SD

The City of Rapid City constructed a new drainage channel in an area of highly unstable soils. The existing channel was severely degraded and undersized. The purpose of the project was to reduce sediment transport (improving Storm Water Quality), reduce localized flooding to area businesses, and conveyance of storm water. 

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Twin Lakes Emergency Drawdown
Brookings County, SD

Twin Lakes and Lake Sinai have historically been a closed drainage basin. Brush Lake drains to Twin, and Twin drains to Lake Sinai when and if they meet their natural outlet elevations. In the summer of 2011, the lake water levels finally reached their natural outlet elevations and began to flow to a Tributary to the Big Sioux River. A roadway embankment exists across the Lake Sinai natural outlet, which prompted the Brookings County Drainage Board to retain Banner to analyze options meeting county highway drainage standards.  Banner recommended installing four culverts through the county road to relieve lake levels above the natural outlet elevation. Recommendations of culvert improvements for the downstream roadway crossings were also conducted and brought to the drainage board for their consideration. 

As Twin Lakes was discharging over its natural outlet, its water level was above the US Hwy 81 centerline which caused safety and damage concerns for SDDOT. Additionally, the SDDOT retained Banner to help secure a Brookings County drainage permit for the emergency drawdown of Twin Lakes to a reasonable water level. The drainage permit included a hydraulics and hydrology study for the lake systems to analyze the impacts of a 90-day drawdown of Twin Lakes while taking into account the potential for several different scenarios of weather patterns. An EPA SWMM watershed model was created to run scenarios and assist in recommending a reasonable drawdown rate. The downstream impacts from Twin Lakes flowing to Lake Sinai and from Lake Sinai downstream to the Big Sioux River were addressed in the study and presented at County Drainage Board hearings. Pumping and siphoning were temporary alternatives investigated for the drawdown. Ultimately, due to cost, SDDOT opted to install a more permanent solution which could be used in the future if a Permanent Drainage Permit with Brookings County and SD DENR is pursued in the future. The drawdown from Twin Lakes successfully occurred without adverse impacts downstream.

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Columbia Circle Drainage Channel Improvements
Sioux Falls, SD

Richmond Estates 2nd Addition in northwest Sioux Falls was constructed in the mid 1980’s. Over the years, continual degradation of an existing stream channel which flows in the backyards of residential lots created concerns with shallow sanitary sewer crossings. Scour issues at the downstream end of storm drain outlets feeding the drainage channel between Bahnson Avenue and Sycamore Avenue north of 3rd Street also necessitated action by the City to resolve the drainage channel issues. Banner Associates was contracted for the design of grading, storm sewer and sanitary sewer improvements. Numerous permanent utility and temporary construction easements were necessary to complete the work. The design incorporates a low flow pipe to carry trickle water through the area, two rock drop structures to dissipate energy within the drainage channel, and reestablishing safe and protected sanitary sewer crossings in the area.

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